AWS Certified Big Data - Specialty (#45)

An organization uses Amazon Elastic MapReduce(EMR) to process a series of extract-transform-load (ETL) steps that run in sequence. The output of each step must be fully processed in subsequent steps but will not be retained. Which of the following techniques will meet this requirement most efficiently?

Use the EMR File System (EMRFS) to store the outputs from each step as objects in Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).
Use the s3n URI to store the data to be processed as objects in Amazon S3.
Define the ETL steps as separate AWS Data Pipeline activities.
Load the data to be processed into HDFS, and then write the final output to Amazon S3.